Foreign-currency transactions are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the date of transaction. At the reporting date, monetary items are translated at the closing rate, and non-monetary items are translated at the exchange rate at the date of transaction. Exchange rate differences are recognized in profit or loss.
The assets and liabilities of Group entities whose functional currency is not the euro are translated into euros from the local currency using the middle rates at the reporting date. The income statements and corresponding profit or loss of foreign-currency denominated Group entities are translated at monthly average exchange rates for the period. The differences that arise from the use of both rates are recognized directly in equity.
The exchange rates of certain significant currencies changed as follows:
|Annual average rate||Rate at the reporting date|
|2017||2016||2015||Dec. 31, 2017||Dec. 31, 2016|
|100 Czech korunas (CZK)||3.79799||3.69912||3.66596||3.90961||3.70104|
|1 pound sterling (GBP)||1.14063||1.22003||1.37760||1.12664||1.16939|
|100 Croatian kuna (HRK)||13.39790||13.27380||13.13380||13.43590||13.23480|
|1,000 Hungarian forints (HUF)||3.23421||3.21138||3.22570||3.22290||3.22612|
|100 Macedonian denars (MKD)||1.62388||1.62360||1.62569||1.62592||1.62421|
|100 Polish zlotys (PLN)||23.48500||22.91960||23.89210||23.93060||22.65680|
|1 U.S. dollar (USD)||0.88549||0.90365||0.90117||0.83340||0.94872|