Workforce statistics

Headcount development
             
    Dec. 31, 2017 Dec. 31, 2016 a Dec. 31, 2015 a Dec. 31, 2014 Dec. 31, 2013
FTEs in the Group   217,349 218,341 225,243 227,811 228,596
Of which: Deutsche Telekom AG   21,428 22,571 26,205 28,569 29,577
Of which: civil servants (in Germany, active service relationship)   15,482 15,999 18,483 19,881 20,523
Germany operating segment a   63,928 65,452 67,927 68,754 66,725
United States operating segment   45,888 44,820 44,229 39,683 37,071
Europe operating segment a   47,421 46,808 48,920 53,499 53,265
Systems Solutions operating segment a   37,924 37,472 37,850 46,244 49,540
Group Development a   1,967 2,572 2,768
Group Headquarters & Group Services a   20,222 21,216 23,548 19,631 21,995
Breakdown by geographic area            
Germany   101,901 104,662 110,354 114,749 116,643
International   115,448 113,679 114,888 113,061 111,953
Of which: other EU member states   59,952 59,456 60,710 63,032 63,939
Of which: rest of Europe   2,620 2,581 2,945 3,127 3,238
Of which: North America   46,332 45,364 44,803 40,346 37,856
Of which: rest of world   6,543 6,278 6,431 6,556 6,920
Natural attrition % 4.7 4.0 4.4 4.2 4.2
Of which: Germany % 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.8
Of which: international % 9.2 8.1 9.3 8.6 7.6
Productivity trend b            
Net revenue per employee  thousands of € 346 331 306 275 262
 
a Since January 1, 2017, we have reported on the Group Development operating segment and within the Group Headquarters & Group Services segment on the Board of Management department Technology and Innovation. Comparative figures have been adjusted retrospectively.
b Based on average number of employees.

For more information, please refer to the section “Group organization, Group strategy, and Management of the Group,” and the disclosures under segment reporting in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
Personnel costs
billions of €
    2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
Personnel costs in the Group   15.5 16.4 15.8 14.7 15.1
Of which: Germany   8.5 9.8 9.4 9.1 9.4
Of which: international   7.0 6.6 6.4 5.6 5.7
Special factors a   0.6 1.6 1.2 0.9 1.4
Personnel costs in the Group (adjusted for special factors)   14.9 14.8 14.6 13.8 13.7
Net revenue   74.9 73.1 69.2 62.7 60.1
Adjusted personnel cost ratio  % 19.9 20.3 21.2 22.0 22.7
Personnel costs at Deutsche Telekom AG under German GAAP   2.7 3.5 2.9 2.8 3.1
 
a Expenses for staff-related measures.